Fecal-oral, oral, and respiratory routes of transmission have been suggested for different human polyomaviruses. 20 Studies of urban sewage samples suggest that JC and BK viruses might be acquired through fecally contaminated water, food, and fomites. 21,22 Salivary shedding suggests that BK virus might be transmitted orally, KI and WU polyomaviruses have been isolated from respiratory tract specimens of children and immunosuppressed adults, and Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA can be detected. Polyomaviruses are small, nonenveloped DNA viruses, which are widespread in nature. In immunocompetent hosts, the viruses remain latent after primary infection. With few exceptions, illnesses associated with these viruses occur in times of immune compromise, especially in conditions that bring about T cell deficiency The transmission route for JCPyV and BKPyV has still not been fully defined yet both respiratory and oral-fecal routes are plausible transmission pathways for these viruses. Exposure likely occurs during childhood, as most people are seropositive for these viruses when they reach adulthood for these new polyomaviruses as occur with JC and BK
The genome of a typical polyomavirus codes for between 5 and 9 proteins, divided into two transcriptional regions called the early and late regions due to the time during infection in which they are transcribed. Each region is transcribed by the host cell's RNA polymerase II as a single pre-messenger RNA containing multiple genes The human polyomaviruses, BK virus and JC virus, have long been associated with serious diseases including polyomavirus nephropathy and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Both viruses establish ubiquitous, persistent infections in healthy individuals. Reactivation can occur when the immune system is impaired, leading to disease progression Transmission. It is not known how this virus is transmitted. It is known, however, that the virus is spread from person to person, and not from an animal source. It has been suggested that this virus may be transmitted through respiratory fluids or urine, since infected individuals periodically excrete virus in the urine
Trichodysplasia Spinulosa Polyomavirus Infection Occurs during Early Childhood with Intrafamilial Transmission, Especially from Mother to Child. Pedergnana V(1), Martel-Jantin C(2), Nicol JTJ(3), Leblond V(3), Tortevoye P(4), Coursaget P(5), Touzé A(3), Abel L(6), Gessain A(7) Polyomavirus är ensamt släkte av virus inom familjen Polyomaviridae.Polyomavirus är DNA-baserade (dubbelsträngat DNA), små (40-50 nanometer i diameter), ikosaedriska till formen och saknar lipoproteinskal.De är potentiellt onkogena (dvs tumörskapande), de fortlever ofta som en latent infektion i ett värddjur utan att orsaka sjukdom, men kan orsaka tumörer i ett värddjur av en annan. PolyomaVirus Virus Symptoms & Transmission Infection/ Disease Diagnosis Treatment BK Transmission: Respiratory fluid or urine Renal disease in AIDS paients Respiratory infection Fever PCR Blood or urine test No effective drugs without toxicity The mechanism for human polyomavirus transmission has not been fully established. PyVs WU, BK, and JC have been found in raw sewage and stool samples from children and adults, suggesting that fecal-oral transmission may be an important mode of infection (Bofill-Mas et al. 2001, 2010; Vanchiere et al. 2009; Ren et al. 2009)
Transmission: The disease can spread from one bird to another via feather dust, feces, aerosols and parental feeding of chicks. APV can also be transmitted via direct contact or contact with infected environments (incubators, nest boxes, etc.) 3. JC Polyomavirus 3.1. Modes of Transmission and Epidemiology of JCV. The first case of demyelinating disease described with the term PML was found in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1958 , but accounts of potential cases can be traced as far back as 1930 [23, 30, 31] In conclusion, the results described here show that vertical transmission by polyomavirus SV40 can occur in susceptible hosts, that the viral regulatory region is a determinant of transmission, and that SV40 appears to replicate in hamsters. The possibility of vertical transmission of polyomaviruses in humans should be considered
Polyoma (referred to as mouse polyomavirus herein) was the first member of the polyomavirus family to be discovered. Ludwig Gross was studying the transmission of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in mice, and extracts from infected animals were used to transmit leukemia Phylogenetic relationships among polyomaviruses, based on the amino acid sequence of the viral protein large tumor antigen, have resulted in the delineation of four genera: Alphapolyomavirus, Betapolyomavirus, Gammapolyomavirus and Deltapolyomavirus . Negative and positive sequencing results (dashes and closed circles, respectively) determined in urine (upper panels) and blood samples (lower panels) of donors (left panels) and respective recipients (right panels) of subset 1 for sampling time points 0, 4-6, and 52 weeks after transplantation Kitamura T, Kunitake T, Guo J, et al. Transmission of the human polyomavirus JC virus occurs both within the family and outside the family. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32:2359. Kunitake T, Kitamura T, Guo J, et al. Parent-to-child transmission is relatively common in the spread of the human polyomavirus JC virus
Rat Polyomavirus-2 (RPyV2) Classification DNA virus, nonenveloped Family Polyomaviridae Affected Species Rats (sp. Rattus novegicus) Frequency Antibodies can be detected in laboratory rats with low-medium prevalence, but clinical illness is seen only in immunodeficient rats. Transmission Rat polyomavirus-2 (RPyV2) is transmitted through th In two cases, the nucleotide sequence of the BK RR demonstrated that the viruses isolated from maternal and fetal tissues showed a high homology with one another and had a characteristic deletion of the R 63 box compared to the archetype strain. The results indicate that BKV may be transmitted vertically Transmission Transmission of MCV is not fully characterized (IARC 2013). The skin appears to be a primary site of MCV infection, and healthy individ-uals have been shown to chronically shed MCV DNA from the skin cell polyomavirus-specific antibodies with Merkel cell carcinoma We report the identification, pathogenesis, and transmission of a novel polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient F344 rats with null Prkdc and interleukin 2 receptor gamma genes. Infected rats experienced weight loss, decreased fecundity, and mortality Polyomavirus is the sole genus of viruses within the family Polyomaviridae.Polyomaviruses are DNA-based (double-stranded DNA,~5000 base pairs,circular genome), small (40-50 nanometers in diameter), and icosahedral in shape, and do not have a lipoprotein envelope. They are potentially oncogenic (tumor-causing); they often persist as latent infections in a host without causing disease, but may.
TEM Transmission electron microscopy VLP Virus-like particle wt Wild-type Introduction Polyomaviruses are small double-stranded DNA viruses of the family Polyomaviridae. The single genus comprises at least 32 species infecting mammals and birds including the type species, Simian virus 40, the well-studied Murin AB - We report the identification, pathogenesis, and transmission of a novel polyomavirus in severe combined immunodeficient F344 rats with null Prkdc and interleukin 2 receptor gamma genes. Infected rats experienced weight loss, decreased fecundity, and mortality Polyomavirus hominis 1, better known as BK virus (BKV), infects up to 90% of the general population. However, significant clinical manifestations are rare and limited to individuals with impaired immune functions. BKV has been associated with diverse entities such as haemorrhagic cystitis, ureteric stenosis, vasculopathy, pneumonitis, encephalitis, retinitis, and even multi-organ failure
Attachement of the viral proteins to host receptors triggers lipid-mediated endocytosis of the virus into the host cell. Virion transits through endoplasmic reticulum where host protein disulfide isomerases rearrange its capsid structure. Export of misfolded virion to the cytoplasm possibly through host ERAD pathway Transmission can occur through the respiratory route, via horizontal transmission, through family cohabitation, fecal-oral and urine-oral routes and through renal transplantation [4,5,6,7,8]. One of the most common transmission routes is the urine-oral route because the virus establishes persistent infection in renal cells and is constantly excreted, which can result in water and food contamination [ 9 , 10 ] Transmission electron microscopy images of polyoma- Figure 2. Biological debris are misleading elements when they virus in negative contrast with capsids intact and damaged and have the same dimensions of the particles and similar radiometric completely full of organic and/or stain materials; particle limits are distribution. diffuse
Polyomavirus pathogenesis 21. Polyomavirus • Structure - Small (5 kb) circular dsDNA genome, naked capsid • Pathogenesis - respiratory transmission - replication in nucleus; very host dependent - viremia - persistence in kidneys; reactivation with immune compromise - inapparent infection; hemorrhagic cystitis; PML • Diagnosis - viral nucleic acid • Treatment/prevention. . Valeria Pietropaolo, Cristiana Di Taranto, Anna Marta Degener, Li Jin, Laura Sinibaldi, Andrea Baiocchini, Marco Melis, Nicola Orsi. Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive Lazzaro Spallanzani; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review Transmission of the human polyomavirus JC virus occurs both within the family and outside the family. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2359-2363. OpenUrl Abstract / FREE Full Text. 14..
Polyomavirus infections ignite upon different forms of stress, including poor nutrition while breeding, over-breeding, mites and insects. Transmission of the virus occurs either directly from bird to bird (parental feeding), or may be attributable to environmental conditions, including a lack of hygiene in the aviary The search for polyomavirus DNA in umbilical cord blood samples was always negative. Conclusions: Polyomavirus DNA was frequently detected in pregnancy, whereas genomic rearrangements were rare, and no evidence of transplacental transmission of polyomavirus was obtained
Parent-to-child transmission is relatively common in the spread of the human polyomavirus JC virus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology . 1995;33(6):1448-1451. Moti L. Chapagain, Vivek R. Nerurkar, Human Polyomavirus JC (JCV) Infection of Human B Lymphocytes: A Possible Mechanism for JCV Transmigration across the Blood-Brain Barrier, The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010 July;202(2):184-191. doi:10.1086/65382 To examine the mode of transmission of BK polyomavirus (BKV), urine samples were collected from Japanese-Americans in Los Angeles and from other southern Californians. Subtype I was the main subtype found in samples from both groups. The subtype I subgroup Ib-2,. Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus (TSPyV) has recently been identified as the probable etiological agent of trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare and severe proliferative skin disorder observed in immunocompromized patients, especially children (Rouanet et al., 2016; van der Meijden et al., 2010). Recent serological studies have indicated that TSPyV infection is common and that TSPyV. Detection by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a polyomavirus (JC virus) in ultrathin sections of a brain biopsy specimen from a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. A, Arrows indicate two areas of the cell nucleus containing numerous viral particles. B, Nuclear JC virus particles at high magnification Kitamura T, Aso Y, Kuniyoshi N, Hara K, Yogo Y (1990) High incidence of urinary JC virus excretion in nonimmunosuppressed older patients. J Infect Dis 161: 1 128±1133 12. Kitamura T, Kunitake T, Guo J, Tominaga T, Kawabe K, Yogo Y (1994) Transmission of human polyomavirus JC virus occurs both within the family and outside the family
. Polyomavirus - 2 to know? John Cunningham (JC) BK virus. Polyomavirus - mechanism of action of its 2 types? Assoc. w/ viremia that results in seeding of the kidney, in which a clinically latent infection is established VIROLOGY. Polyomavirus BK (BK Virus) is small double stranded DNA virus that has been assigned to the Polyomaviridae family. The BK virus genome consists of a non-coding control region (NCCR), the early coding region coding for the T antigen, and the late coding region, which codes for the viral capsid proteins (VP-1, VP-2, VP-3) and agnoprotein ()
CONCLUSIONS: Polyomavirus DNA was frequently detected in pregnancy, whereas genomic rearrangements were rare, and no evidence of transplacental transmission of polyomavirus was obtained Year: 2008 OAI identifier: oai:iris.uniupo.it:11579/3164 BACKGROUND: Studies have shown conflicting results on the prevalence and the risks of BK reactivation among pregnant women. In addition, the prevalence of vertical transmission and its clinical significance during pregnancy are not well studied. OBJECTIVES: The study's aims were (1) to investigate the prevalence, and (2) to assess the risk of BK Polyomavirus reactivation and its clinical. WU polyomavirus is a recently described polyomavirus found in patients with respiratory infections. Of 2,637 respiratory samples tested in St. Louis, Missouri, 2.7% were positive for WU polyomavirus by PCR, and 71% were coinfected with other respiratory viruses. Persistent human infection with WU polyomavirus is described JC polyomavirus and BK polyomavirus are also potentially oncogenic. The observed abundance and wide dissemination of HPVs and HPyVs in water environments strongly suggest the need to shed light on the fate of these viruses in water environments and to elucidate their potential for waterborne transmission
. Virus is excreted in feather dander and droppings. Infecti on persists in the kidneys of carrier birds and virus is excreted intermittently in the droppings, probably during times of stress Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy has been reported in 2% to 4% of renal-transplant recipients ().It is usually related to BK virus (BKV) infection and is a significant cause of graft failure ().To date, there are only isolated reports of polyomavirus nephropathy occurring in other solid-organ recipients, but the true incidence is unknown ().. WHAT IS POLYOMAVIRUS. Polyomavirus is a virus. It is considered one of the most significant threats to cage birds around the world. The virus attracts young chicks between the age of 5 days-56 days. Many young chicks will die from the disease as there is no known treatment. TRANSMISSION MCV is the fifth polyomavirus that infects humans to be discovered. It belongs to the murine polyomavirus group, one of the three main clades of polyomaviruses.  ( The group is named for murine polyomavirus , the earliest virus of the group to be discovered, and does not imply that MCV is transmitted to humans from rodents.
Polyomavirus, (family Polyomaviridae), any of a subgroup of minute oncogenic DNA viruses of the family Polyomaviridae. The virus was first isolated in 1953 when the murine polyomavirus was discovered to have caused tumours in laboratory mice. Since then the virus has been found in a wide variety o • Mode of transmission unknown - possibly through close contact of family members or from environmental sources . Properties and Significant U.S. Exposur
Most people are asymptomatic carriers of the BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) but the mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion remain poorly understood. Furthermore, BKPyV is responsible for nephropathies in kidney transplant recipients. Unfortunately, the sole therapeutic option is to modulate immunosuppression, which increases the risk of transplant rejection CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrates a significantly increased risk of BK Polyomavirus reactivation during pregnancy. Although vertical transmission can occur with an overall estimated prevalence of 4.9%, there are currently no data suggesting harm to pregnant women and fetuses from BK Polyomavirus Transmission of the virus is still not completely understood but evidence of respiratory transmission had been found. Alternative modes of transmission are still being researched.(2) Persistent infections occur in the cells of the kidneys and of the urinary tract in healthy individuals
Texture Indicators for Segmentation of Polyomavirus Particles in Transmission Electron Microscopy Image The primate polyomavirus SV40 was discovered in 1960 as a passenger virus in cultures of rhesus monkey cells. The exact route of transmission is still unknown. By analogy with murine polyoma virus and with SV40, infection may occur by aerosol inhalation or oral ingestion of virus with excretion occurring via the urinary tract
BK polyomavirus is ubiquitous, with a seropositivity rate of over 75% in the adult The exact route of transmission from human to human is unknown. 51 Oral transmission has been proposed, 52 but the most accepted hypothesis is that BK is spread through the respiratory tract. 53 Primary infection is indeed associated with upper respiratory. Polyomavirus BK was first reported to be a human pathogen in 1971 when a renal transplant patient, with the initials BK, presented with ureteric stenosis. 1 Microbiologic and pathologic work-up. INTRODUCTION. Polyomavirus infections have been detected in vertebrate hosts including rodents, cattle, birds, monkeys, and primates. Despite some common features with papillomaviruses, including an oncogenic potential, polyomaviruses are recognized as members of the separate genus Polyomavirus in the Polyomaviridae family of the ungrouped DNA viruses 
Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in childhood: the route of viral transmission. Future studies are required to fully elucidate the potential implications of MCPyV infection in children. Abbreviations ALTO Alternative tumor antigen open reading frame BKPyV BK polyomavirus Virus has also been detected in stool samples and is prevalent in sewage and rivers worldwide [41 - 45] raising the possibility of transmission through ingestion of nonsterile water BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy is an important cause of post-transplantation renal failure. We present two cases of BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy who were submitted to contrasting strategies of clinical follow-up to BK polyomavirus reactivation, but progressed to a similar final outcome. Case 1 is a 37-year-old white man whose graft had never presented a good glomerular. Start studying Papillomavirus, Polyomavirus, and Parvivirus. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools Polyomavirus, eine Gattung der Papovaviren, deren Name Polyoma sich von der Eigenschaft, bei der Übertragung auf Versuchstiere in vielen verschiedenen Organen Tumoren erzeugen zu können, ableitet. In ihren natürlichen Wirten (Mensch, Affe
BK polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis among pediatric allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: treatment response and evidence for nosocomial transmission polyomavirus. polyomavirus: translation. polyomavirus [päl΄ē ō′mə vī΄rəs] n. [ POLY-+-OMA] any of a genus (Polyomavirus) of papovaviruses that naturally infect wild and laboratory mice, and that cause tumors when injected into newborn mice. Viral strain differences influence the oncogenic potential of polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40). We hypothesized that viral strain differences might also affect vertical transmission of SV40 in susceptible hosts. Pregnant Syrian golden hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with 107 plaque-forming units of SV40 and offspring were sacrificed post-delivery (1-21 days, 6 months)
Asymptomatic infections with polyomaviruses in humans are common, but these small viruses can cause severe diseases in immunocompromised hosts. New Jersey polyomavirus (NJPyV) was identified via a muscle biopsy in an organ transplant recipient with systemic vasculitis, myositis, and retinal blindness, and human polyomavirus 12 (HPyV12) was detected in human liver tissue Abstract. Background Before kidney transplantation, donors and recipients are routinely screened for viral pathogens using specific tests. Little is known about unrecognized viru A Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde é uma colecao de fontes de informacao científica e técnica em saúde organizada e armazenada em formato eletrônico nos países da Região Latino-Americana e do Caribe, acessíveis de forma universal na Internet de modo compatível com as bases internacionais BK polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis among pediatric allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients: Treatment response and evidence for nosocomial transmission Julkaisun otsikon käännös Minna Koskenvuo, Alexis Dumoulin, Irmeli Lautenschlager, Eeva Auvinen , Laura Mannonen , Veli-Jukka Anttila , Kirsi Jahnukainen , Ulla M. Saarinen-Pihkala , Hans H. Hirsc Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) is one of the most common viral complications in renal transplant recipients and is an increasingly recognized cause of renal transplant dysfunction and graft loss. Since the first description of PVAN in 1995, an increasing prevalence rate from 1% to 10% has been evidenced We produced capsids of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in a baculovirus expression system and developed a virus-like particle (VLP) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To determine age-specific seroprevalence, serum samples were collected from 947 individuals attending hospital outpatient clinics and ranging in age from 1 to 93 years